"How to change a e.g. JDBC URI in the configuration of a Java EE application server running in docker and staged environment?"
...is one of the recurring airhacks.com, airhacks.io and
The answer is: don't change it:
See you at Java EE Workshops at Munich Airport, Terminal 2 and particularly at Java EE 7 Microservices Is MUC too far? Checkout: javaeemicro.services.
NEW MUC Airport Workshop: Migrating Java Client (Swing / Java FX) to Web Standards
Airport MUC workshops: Web (SPA, PWAs, Offline, Desktop, Mobile) Applications Essentials and Effective Web Applications. No migrations. #usetheplatform
Podcast: airhacks.fm and newsletter: airhacks.news
A book about rethinking Java EE Patterns